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Union Pacific Railroad

The Union Pacific Railroad (reporting marks UP, UPP, UPY), legally known as UPRC or simply Union Pacific, is a freight-hauling railroad which operates 8,300 locomotives over 32,200 miles (51,800 km) in 23 states west of New Orleans and Chicago. The UPR is one of the largest transportation companies in the world, and is number 2 in the United States, after BNSF. UPR is the main operating company of the UPC, with headquarters in Omaha, Nebraska. Lance Fritz has been the president of UP since 2015.

Union Pacific General Electric ET44AH locomotive of the Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific General Electric ET44AH locomotive of the Union Pacific Railroad

UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD

The original Union Pacific Railroad was founded in 1862 and was a part of the First Transcontinental Railroad project, which would later be known as the Overland Route. In 1880, the First Transcontinental Railroad was absorbed by the UPR, which was absorbed by the UPR in 1897. The original UPR was incorporated on July 1, 1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. UP was purchased by the Kansas Pacific and intended to merge it with the UP.

The UP over the next century acquired and absorbed several railroads. Those companies including Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company, the Western Pacific Railroad, the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad and the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad. The UP in 1998, merged with Southern Pacific Transportation Company. Itself a giant system that was absorbed by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad maintaining the Southern Pacific name. Today, UP’s and its chief competitor, BNSF Railway. They are the nation’s largest freight railroad by volume. They have a duopoly on transcontinental freight rail lines in the western United States.

FACILITIES

The Union Pacific network includes hundreds of yards. Most of these yards are flat yards used for local switching. Intermodal terminals and hump yards are the other types of yards it consists. But the Union Pacific also has terminals inland for trucks, such as the terminal which opened in 2009 in San Antonio.

LOCOMOTIVES

The UP has owned some of the most powerful locomotives in rail transportation. These include members of the Northern-type, the Challenger-type, and the Big Boy steam locomotives. Union Pacific ordered the first diesel streamliner. Late it had the largest fleet of turbine-electric locomotives in the world. They still own the largest operational diesel locomotive (the 6936).

PASSENGER SERVICE

Between the years 1869 and 1971, the Union Pacific provided passenger service across its famous Overland Route. The last passenger train operated by the Union Pacific was the westbound City of Los Angeles, arriving at LA Union Station on May 2. The Union Pacific has since then hosted Amtrak trains to satisfy its common carrier requirements. As of 2018, Union Pacific does not provide regularly-scheduled intercity passenger services.

SOURCES

"Company Overview". Union Pacific Corporation. December 31, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2020 from https://www.up.com/aboutup/corporate_info/uprrover/index.htm
Solomon, Brian (2000). Union Pacific Railroad. Osceola, WI: MBI. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7603-0756-4. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=d-KLEjzWUq8C
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Southern Pacific Railroad

The Southern Pacific (reporting mark SP) was an American Class I railroad network that operated between 1865 and 1996 in the western region of the United States. This network was managed by several companies under the names SP Company, SP Railroad, and SP Transportation Company. Southern Pacific began originally as a land holding company. The last form of the company, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was established in 1969 and took control of SP.

In 1995, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was acquired by Union Pacific Corporation, forming a merger with Union Pacific Railroad. The SP legacy founded hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson, and other locations. It also founded several other projects such as a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone in 1971. This network today is a part of SPRINT, a company whose name was coined from the acronym for SP Railroad Internal Networking Telephony.

Southern Pacific 7561 Floriston June 86
Southern Pacific 7561 Floriston June 86 Wiki

SOUTHERN PACIFIC

The original SP, was founded as a land holding company in 1865, later acquiring in 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad through leasing. The SP Network by 1900 was a major railroad which included many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgan’s Louisiana and Texas Railroad. It extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, Texas, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco and Sacramento. The SPC replaced the SPR and assumed railroad operations of the SPR. In 1929, SP/Texas and New Orleans operated 13,848 route-miles not including Cotton Belt, whose purchase of the Golden State Route circa 1980 nearly doubled its size to 3,085 miles (4,965 km), bringing total SP/SSW mileage to around 13,508 miles (21,739 km).

LOCOMOTIVES

The Southern Pacific, like most railroads, painted a large number of its steam locomotives black during the early 20th century. After 1945, the SP switched to a silver paint to its locomotives (almost white in appearance) with graphite colored sides for visibility. SP was popular for its L-shaped engineer’s windshields. This design was introduced by EMD on SD45 demonstrator 4353 and improved visibility by omitting the pillar which in conventional designs splits the engineer’s windshield into two panes.

PASSENGER TRAINS

The Southern Pacific operated several passenger trains at various times until May 1, 1971 when Amtrak tool control of long-distance passenger operations in the United States.

SOURCES

Southern Pacific Railroad. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 2, 2020 from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Southern-Pacific-Railroad
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Pennsylvania Railroad

The Pennsylvania Railroad (reporting mark PRR, the legal name The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, also known as the “Pennsy”) was an American Class I railroad which was founded in 1846 with headquarters in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was named the Pennsylvania Railroad due to the fact that it was established in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. By the year 1882, the Pennsylvania Railroad had grown to become had grown into the largest railroad, in terms of both traffic and revenue, as well as the largest corporation and transport enterprise in the whole world.

Its budget was second only to that of the United States government. PRR still holds the record for the longest continuous dividend history; for 100 consecutive years, it paid out annual dividends to shareholders. PRR was eventually converted into an insurance company and is known today as American Premier Underwriters, and is now a subsidiary of American Financial Group.

Pennsylvania Railroad PRR E8A 5766 with WB Manhatten Limited + Golden Triangle Englewood, IL
Pennsylvania Railroad PRR E8A 5766 with WB Manhatten Limited + Golden Triangle Englewood, IL WIKI

Pennsylvania Railroad

As the years went by, PRR acquired and merged with or owned part of at least 800 other rail lines and companies. By the end of 1926, PRR operated 11,640.66 miles (18,733.83 kilometers) of rail line; and carried almost thrice the traffic of other railroads of comparable length in the 1920s (Albert, 2012). The New York Central (NYC) was PRR’s biggest rival, which carried about three-quarters of the Pennsy’s ton miles. The Pennsylvania Railroad in 1968 absorbed the New York Central in 1968. Which led to the railroad renaming into Penn Central Transportation Company or shortened to “Penn Central”. Within two years, the railroad filed for bankruptcy.

MAJOR ROUTES

Main Line: The Pennsy’s main line extended from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington lines:

The Pennsylvania Railroad began operating passenger services from New York City to Philadelphia to Washington in 1885. There were limited stops along the route. This service became known as the “Congressional Limited Express”. The service grew fast and by the 1920s, the PRR was operating hourly passenger train service between New York, Philadelphia and Washington.

New York-Chicago

The Pennsy began passenger train services running between New York City and Chicago in 1887. This also marked the entry of the vestibule, which was an enclosed platform at the end of each passenger car, which enabled protected access to the whole train.

New York-St. Louis:

The Pennsylvania Railroad in 1890, acquired the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad. This line ran west from Pittsburgh to Bradford, Ohio, where it split, with one line to Chicago and the other to East St. Louis, Illinois, via Indianapolis, Indiana.

FACILITIES

In 1849, officials at Pennsylvania Railroad developed plans to build a repair facility at Altoona called “Altoona Works”. Construction began the following year in 1850, and soon after, several small building accommodated a machine shop, woodworking shop, locomotive repair shop, blacksmith shop and foundry. These facilities were eventually demolished to create space for continuing expansion. By 1926, the Altoona Works occupied 217.82 acres (88.15 ha) and consisted of four units: the Altoona Machine Shops, Altoona Car Shops, Juniata Shops, and South Altoona Foundries.

SOURCES

Albert J. Churella (2012). The Pennsylvania Railroad, Volume 1: Building an Empire, 1846-1917. U of Pennsylvania Press. pp. ix, x, 501. ISBN 0-8122-0762-9.
"The Pennsylvania Railroad". The Erie Lackawanna Limited. Retrieved April 2, 2020 from http://jimmancuso1.tripod.com/id12.html
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Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad

The Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad, often abbreviated as the C&TSRR, is a narrow-gauge heritage railroad measuring 3ft (914mm) and runs for 64 miles (103 km) of track between Antonito, Colorado and Chama, New Mexico, United States. The name Cumbres and Toltec are gotten from two geographical features along the route the 10,015-foot (3,053 m)-high Cumbres Pass and the Toltec Gorge. The line which was originally part of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad’s narrow-gauge network has been owned jointly by the states of New Mexico and Colorado since 1970.

Cumbres and Toltec  Scenic Railroad excursion train headed by locomotive 484
Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad excursion train headed by locomotive 484 WIKI

CUMBRES AND TOLTEC

In 1880, rack crews of the Denver and the Rio Grande began to lay the first rails of the San Juan Extension going south out of Alamosa Colorado towards Antonito Colorado arriving in March of the same year. Instead of the standard gauge of four feet, eight and a half inches, the company chose to use the narrow gauge of three feet between the rails. They decided to use this measurement because the narrow gauge was cheaper to build and allowed for laying track where the larger standard would not fit. The line continued west from Antonito to Chama New Mexico arriving there on the 31st December 1880.

The track had come 64 miles, through two tunnels, over a 10,000-foot mountain pass, and skirted a 600-foot gorge. The line then went onwards to Durango, Colorado. This extension was made in order to tap into the mineral-rich area of Silverton, Colorado. In 1968, the Denver and Rio Grande Western filed for abandonment of the narrow gauge line. The following year, the legislature was signed in New Mexico which provided a way for the state of New Mexico to purchase the track between Antonito and Chama. Colorado passed similar legislation in 1970. Both states took joint ownership of the line and the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad were formed in 1971.

CURRENT OPERATIONS

C&TSRR operates between May and October with two trains, one in each direction which depart every morning from Antonito and Chama. Both train converge for lunch at Osier Colorado. C&TSRR in addition to its through service operates numerous special excursions during the season such as dinner trains. During the holiday season, the C&TSRR on certain days offer special “Santa Trains” from both Chama and Antonito as they encourage guests to come along with food or presents for the less fortunate.

LOCOMOTIVES

All of the steam locomotives operating on the Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad are former Denver and Rio Grande Western locomotives. The railroad owns four classes of steam locomotives. K-37, K-36, and K-27 engines are all outside frame 2-8-2 engines built by Baldwin Locomotive Works. The T-12 No. 168 is a 4-6-0 inside frame engine also built by Baldwin Locomotive works. 2 class DE B+B-22 diesel locomotives are owned by the C&TSRR for emergency assistance should the steam engines run down. They are also put to use for operations outside the normal operating season.

SOURCES

Railroad, The Cumbres & Toltec Scenic. GlobeNewswire News Room. Retrieved April 2, 2020 from https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2018/02/27/1396259/0/en/Full-Steam-Ahead-Make-2018-Your-Year-to-Ride-the-Cumbres-Toltec-Scenic-Railroad.html
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Atchison Topeka Santa Fe Railway

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (reporting mark ATSF), which is usually referred to as the Santa Fe or the AT&SF. The was a railroad chartered in 1929 and was one of America’s larger railroads. ATSF named after the cities and towns of Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe. The railroad stretched to the Kansas-Colorado border in 1873 and Pueblo, Colorado in 1876. In order to create a demand for its services. The railroad established real estate offices and sold farmland out of the land grants of which they were awarded by Congress. Its mainline did not directly serve Santa Fe, despite having the name. This was due to the nature of the terrain, a mountainous terrain. Instead, the metropolitan city of Albuquerque served New Mexico and the Santa Fe Area.

Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway May 1973, a post-Amtrak San Diegan heading South near Miramar
Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway May 1973, a post-Amtrak San Diegan heading South near Miramar

ATCHISON TOPEKA AND SANTA FE RAILWAY

AT&SF in its early years opened Kansas to settlement. A large portion of its revenue was from the sales of wheat grown there. Also from livestock which migrated north to Wichita and Dodge City from Texas by September 1872. The Santa Fe was one of the key players and pioneers in intermodal freight transport. It was an enterprise which included an airline, a tugboat fleet, and the Santa Fe skyway which lasted only a short while (encyclopedia.com). Its bus line provided passenger transportation to areas which were inaccessible by rail. AT&SF officially halted its operations on December 31, 1996. After it merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway.

PASSENGER SERVICE

In the first half of the 20th century, AT&SF was famous for its passenger train service. They introduced several concepts and innovations in the rail travel industry including the Pleasure Domes of the Super Chief and were among the first to add dining cars to its passenger trains. This move began in 1891 with the Northern Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads. The AT&SF offered food onboard in a dining car or at one of the many Harvey House. These restaurants were strategically located throughout the system.

SIGNALS

AT&SF used numerous distinct wayside and crossing signal styles. Beginning in the 1920s, the Santa Fe employed wigwag signals in its early stages from the Magnetic Signal Company in a bid to minimize grade crossing accidents. They employed several distinctive signals which were not common. They had their own unique signals including the model 10s which had the wigwag motor and banner coming from halfway up the mast with the crossbucks on top. The Santa Fe used extensively upper quadrant flagmen, which became very popular at the time as almost every small town street had their crossings protected by these distinct wigwags. In the turn of the 21st century, virtually all the wigwags were replaced with modern signals.

SOURCES

•    "Santa Fe Pacific Corporation | Encyclopedia.com". encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2020  March, 31. 
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Canadian National Railway

Canadian National Railway (reporting mark CN) is a Canadian Class I freight railway with headquarters in Montreal, Quebec which serves Canada and the Midwest and southern region of the United States. CN is the largest railway in Canada, from the physical size of its network to revenue.

Canada’s only transcontinental railway company, and runs through Canada from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia spanning about 20,400 route miles (32,831 km of track). The Canadian national railway is also a public company boasting of 24,000 employees and had a market cap of approximately CA$90 billion as of July 2019. CN was previously owned by the government. Canadian crown corporation from the year of kits founding up until 1995 when it was privatized. Bill gates is the largest single shareholder of CN stock as of 2019 (cbcnews.com).

Canadian National Railway CN 2869 EF-644p parked along the Riverwalk Trail in Quesnel, BC General Electric diesel freight locomotive, 6-axles, 4400 HP
Canadian National Railway CN 2869 EF-644p parked along the Riverwalk Trail in Quesnel, BC General Electric diesel freight locomotive, 6-axles, 4400 HP
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Canadian National Railway

The Canadian National Railways (CNR) was incorporated on June 6, 1919. It comprised several railways which had become bankrupt and had fallen into the hands of the Canadian government, as well as other government-owned railways. The Canadian government privatized CN on November 17, 1995. Over the next decade, the company grew significantly into the United States, with their acquisition of Illinois Central Railroad and Wisconsin Central Transportation, and several other purchases.

The railway was called the “Canadian National Railways” (CNR) between 1919 and 1960 and was renamed Canadian National (CN) in 1960, and has been called so till the present day. While the CN has now become mainly a freight railway, it also operated passenger services until they were assumed by Via Rail in 1978. After 1978, the only passenger services operated by CN were numerous mixed trains (passenger and freight) in Newfoundland. It also has commuter trains on the railway’s electrified routes and towards the south shore in the Montreal area. The mixed train services of Newfoundland lasted until 1988, while the Montreal commuter trains are now operated by Montreal’s EXO.

PASSENGER TRAINS

When the CN was first founded, it constituted mainly of routes inherited from its constituent railways. Eventually created its passenger network into one single network. For example, on December 3, 1920, CNR inaugurated the Continental Limited, which operated over four of its predecessors, as well as the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway. In the 1920s, passenger travel experienced significant growth. The CNR developed new routes and services on its trains including the radio. This growth in passenger travel ended with the great depression which lasted through the 1930s but rose again during the Second World War.

Post WW2

CN introduced a new high-speed train in 1968, the United Aircraft Turbo, which was powered by gas turbines instead of diesel engines. It made trips from Toronto and Montreal in four hours. Eventually, they discontinued as they were not always reliable and uneconomical. The trains were retired and scrapped in 1982 in Quebec. In 1976, an entity called Via-CN was created by CN as a separate unit for operating its passenger services. Via then grew into a coordinated marketing effort with CP Rail for all passenger services, and later into a Crown Corporation which handled inter-city passenger services in Canada. On April 1, 1978, Via Rail took over CN’s passenger services.

FACILITIES

CN owns a number of repair shops and large yards across their system. These facilities are used for several purposes and operations ranging from classification yards to intermodal terminals.

SOURCES

•    "Bill Gates now biggest CN shareholder (CA;CNR)". CBC News. April 25, 2011. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
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  • “Bill Gates now biggest CN shareholder (CA;CNR)”. CBC News. April 25, 2011. Retrieved April 26, 2011.

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Amtrak – National Railroad Passenger Corporation

 The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, dealing as Amtrak (reporting marks AMTK, AMTZ), is a passenger railroad service which offers medium and long-distance intercity transportation in the United States and nine cities in Canada. Founded in 1971, AMTK began as a quasi-public corporation to operate U.S passenger rail services. While it is managed as a for-profit organization, AMTK receives state and federal subsidies. AMTK is headquartered in Washington, D.C and serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three provinces in Canada, and operates more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles (34,000 km) of the track. Approximately 623 miles of this track is owned by Amtrak, as it operates an additional 132 miles of track. Trains are allowed to run as fast as 150mph (240 km/h) on some track sections (trains.com).

Amtrak - National Railroad Passenger Corporation - The Rio Grande Zephyr, Denver, Colorado April 1983.
Amtrak – National Railroad Passenger Corporation – The Rio Grande Zephyr, Denver, Colorado April 1983.

THE NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTK)

The name Amtrak – National Railroad Passenger Corporation was formed from the combination of two words, America and track. At its inception, Amtrak received no rail tracks or right-of-way. Although Amtrak pruned almost half of the passenger rail network, all of its routes were continuations of the previous service. Amtrak continued only 184 of the 366 trains which operated previously (Cook, 1971). On the continued routes, schedules remain the same with only a few minor changes from the Official Guide of the Railways and under the same names.

ROUTES

As required by law, Amtrak operates a national route system. Amtrak is present in 46 of the 48 contiguous states (the sates missing are Wyoming and South Dakota). Amtrak’s services can be categorized into three; short-haul service on the Northeast Corridor, state-supported short-haul service outside the Northeast Corridor, and medium- and long-haul service known within Amtrak as the National Network. For the large portion of its operations, Amtrak receives federal funding. Some of these operations include the northeast corridor, and the National Network routes. AMTK collaborates with other transportation companies in 18 states to run other short and medium-haul routes outside the Northeast Corridor, in addition to its federally funded routes. AMTK in addition to its inter-city services operates commuter services for three state agencies including MARC in Maryland, Shore Line East in Connecticut, and Metrolink in California.

RIDERSHIP AND COMMUTER SERVICES

In 1972, AMTK first full year of operation, Amtrak carried almost 15 million passengers. Ridership has seen steady growth since then, with a record 31.7 million passengers in the year 2017, which was double the figure of its first year. Additionally, through its various commuter services, AMTK serves up to 61 million passengers annually in a joint effort with state and regional authorities in California (through Amtrak California and Metrolink), Connecticut (through Shore Line East), and Maryland (through MARC). In some cases, Amtrak will share trackage rights with independent commuter services. Examples include California (through Caltrain), and Illinois (through Metra).

SOURCES

•    "Trains.com – Amtrak's Track". Retrieved March 31, 2020. 
 •    Cook, Louise (May 1, 1971). "Many famous trains roll into history". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (Idaho). Associated Press. p. 1.
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Norfolk Southern Railway

Norfolk Southern Railway locomotive
Norfolk Southern Railway locomotive Wiki

The Norfolk Southern Railway reporting mark NS. Norfolk Southern is a Class I freight railroad in the United States. At this time, Norfolk Southern headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. NS operates 19,420 route miles (31,250 km) in 22 eastern states. Also, it has rights in Canada. This includes the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It was previously on CN from Buffalo to St Thomas.

Also, Northern Southern is responsible for maintaining 28,400 miles (45,700 km). The remainder operated under track rights. Therefore other parties responsible for maintenance. The railway offers the most extensive intermodal network. Briefly, NS haul coal from;

  1. Indiana
  2. Kentucky
  3. Pennsylvania
  4. Tennessee
  5. Virginia
  6. West Virginia.

NORFOLK SOUTHERN RAILWAY

NS is a major transporter of domestic and export coal. So, the railway’s primary sources of raw material in the eastern US. In Pennsylvania, NS receives fuel through the interchange. Such as RJ Corman Railroad, PA Lines. NS’s export of West Virginia bituminous coal. Thus, it begins transport on portions of the well-engineered railroad—one of the former Virginian Railway. Also, the previous N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia. Its Lambert’s Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk.

Transportation

Coal transported by NS is for steel mills and power plants around the world. Similarly, NS is a major transporter of auto parts. They also transport completed vehicles. Besides, it operates intermodal containers and TOFC trains. Some are in conjunction with other railways. As a result, NS was the first to replaceable wheelsets for trailers.

YARDS AND FACILITIES

The railroad’s locomotive shops are at

  • Juniata, Altoona, Pa
  • Bellevue, Ohio
  • Chattanooga, TN
  • Conway, PA
  • Enola, PA
  • Roanoke, VA
  • Elkhart, IN
  • Shaffers Crossing, Roanoke, VA.

Also, in Atlanta, Norfolk Southern Railway houses a center for

  • operations and service support
  • crew management
  • corporate offices,
  • national customer service,
  • police communications.

Also located in McDonough, GA is the Norfolk Southern Railway training center. In Norfolk, VA is the Lamberts Point coal trans load facility.

Locomotive

There has been a trend to send them to third-party companies over the years. They are located in the same shops major railroads vacated. In fact, the railroad’s locomotive shops are at;

  • Juniata, Altoona, PA
  • Bellevue, Ohio
  • Chattanooga, TN
  • Conway, PA
  • Enola, PA
  • Roanoke, VA
  • Elkhart, IN
  • Shaffers Crossing, Roanoke, VA

Also in Atlanta, Norfolk Southern Railway houses a center for:

  • Operations
  • Service support
  • Crew management
  • National customer service
  • Police communications

Also Located in McDonough, GA is the Norfolk Southern Railway training center and in Norfolk, VA is the Lamberts Point coal trans load facility.

SUBSIDIARIES

Norfolk Southern’s other subsidiaries are

  • Lambert’s Point Docks Inc.
  • Pocahontas Land Corp.
  • T-Cubed
  • Thoroughbred Direct Intermodal Services
  • Thoroughbred Mechanical Services
  • Transworks
  • Triple Crown Services.

In fact, the railroad is the product many companies. Which made them into what is now Norfolk Southern. Hence, in its current form, Norfolk Southern resulted from the consolidation. Also, include Southern Railway and Norfolk and Western Railway. They purchase a portion of Conrail in 1999.

SOURCES

"Norfolk Southern". Fortune. Retrieved 29 March 2020 from https://ww.fortune.com 
 Norfolk Southern Railway. JOC. Retrieved 29 March 2020 from https://www.joc.com/rail-intermodal/class-i-railroads/norfolk-southern-railway  
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Great Northern Railway

Great Northern 400 on the Osceola and St. Croix Valley Railway, 2016
Great Northern 400 on the Osceola and St. Croix Valley Railway, 2016 WIKI

The Great Northern Railway (reporting mark GN) was an American Class I railroad. SP&PR running from Saint Paul to Seattle, creation of 19th-century railroad entrepreneur James J Hill. developed from GP. The Great Northern route, northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the US. In 1970 the Great Northern Railway merged with three other railroads to form the Burlington Northern Railroad, which merged in 1996 with the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway. In the transcontinental railroad in the US history of the Great Northern, successfully built privately funded only. During construction, no federal subsidies will be used, unlike all other transcontinental railroads (Hill, 2001)

THE GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY

The Great Northern was built in stages, slowly to create profitable lines, before extending the road further into the undeveloped Western territories.

Contests to promote interest in the railroad and the ranchlands along its route in early public relations campaigns. Fred J Adams used promotional incentives such as feed and seed donations to farmers getting started along the line. Contests were all-inclusive, from largest farm animals to largest freight carload capacity and were promoted heavily to immigrants and newcomers from the East (Muriel, 1991).

The mainline began at Saint Paul, Minnesota, heading west and topping the bluffs of the Mississippi River, crossing the river to Minneapolis on a massive multi-pierced stone bridge. The mainline headed northwest from the Twin Cities, across North Dakota and eastern Montana. The line then crossed the Rocky Mountains at Marias Pass. It also followed the Flathead River and then Kootenai River to Bonners Ferry, Idaho. It then goes south to Sandpoint, Idaho, west to Newport, Washington. Then to Spokane, Washington, passing by the extensive railroad facility of Hillyard, Washington. From here, the mainline crossed the Cascade Mountains through the Cascade Tunnel under Stevens Pass, reaching Seattle, Washington, in 1893, with the driving of the last spike at Scenic, Washington, on January 6, 1893.

PASSENGER SERVICE

GN operated various passenger trains, but the Empire Builder was their premier passenger train. Empire Builder route named in honor of James J Hill. Amtrak still operates the Empire Builder today, running it over the old Great Northern’s Northern Transcon north of St. Paul.

LATER HISTORY

On March 2, 1970, the Great Northern, together with the Northern Pacific Railway, the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad and the Spokane, Portland, and Seattle Railway merged to form the Burlington Northern Railroad. The BN operated until 1996 when it merged with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway

SOURCES
 Martin, Albro (1991). James J. Hill and the Opening of the Northwest. Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0873512619. 
"James J. Hill: Transforming the American Northwest – Daniel Oliver". fee.org. 1 July 2001. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
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WABASH RAILROAD

The Wabash Railroad (reporting mark WAB) was a Class I railroad that operated in the mid-central United States. It served a large area, including the track in the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, and Missouri, and the province of Ontario. Its primary connections included Chicago, Illinois; Kansas City, Missouri; Detroit, Michigan; Buffalo, New York; St. Louis, Missouri; and Toledo, Ohio. The Wabash’s major freight traffic advantage was the direct line from Kansas City to Detroit, without going through St. Louis or Chicago.

Despite being merged into the Norfolk and Western Railway (N&W) in 1964. The Wabash Company continued to exist on paper until the N&W merged into the Norfolk Southern Railway (NS) in 1982. At the end of 1960, Wabash operated 2,423 miles of road on 4,311 miles of track, not including Ann Arbor and NJI&I; that year it reported 6,407 million net ton-miles of revenue freight and 164 million passenger-miles

Wabash Railroad - Postcard depiction of the Wabash train City of St. Louis. The train was built by American Car Foundry. Circa 1950. The Wabash Railroad went out of business in 1964.
Wabash Railroad – Postcard depiction of the Wabash train City of St. Louis. The train was built by American Car Foundry. Circa 1950. The Wabash Railroad went out of business in 1964. WIKI

THE WABASH RAILROAD

While it was only a Midwestern bridge line the Wabash Railroad carried a fascinating heritage. It earned pop-culture status thanks to the folk song “The Wabash Cannonball” (which eventually led to a train of the same name) and flew a legendary logo with the slogan, “Follow The Flag.”  Its corporate history was a roller-coaster affair of prosperity and struggle. 

Jay Gould

During its formative years, the company did relatively well until Jay Gould gained control in the late 1870s.  This ruthless speculator tried to incorporate it into his planned transcontinental system but the scheme failed when overextended financing led to bankruptcy. Gould retained ownership and his son later inherited the empire in 1896.  When George also ran into monetary trouble, just over a decade later, the family’s involvement forever ended. The Wabash prospered after this time thanks to its many key corridors that handled a diversified traffic base.  Its modern network was slightly over 2,000. Such as route including Detroit, Chicago, St Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, and even Buffalo thanks to a trackage rights agreement. 

Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR)

The mighty Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) acquired stock ownership during the depression era whereupon the Wabash remained a subsidiary until Norfolk & Western’s takeover in 1964.  Today, many of its principal routes remain in use.

Norfolk Southern Heritage Unit #1070 Wabash Railroad

As a part of Norfolk Southern’s 30th anniversary in 2012, the company painted 20 new locomotives into predecessor schemes. NS #1070, an EMD SD70ACe locomotive, painted into the Wabash “Blue Bird” paint scheme. Several portions of the old Wabash Railroad right-of-way have been converted to recreational use. Some of them include the Wabash Cannonball Trail in northwest Ohio, the Wabash Trail and Wauponsee Glacial Trail in Illinois, and the Wabash Trace Nature Trail in Iowa.

SOURCES

Paxson, Frederic L. (October 1912). "The Railroads of the "Old Northwest" Before the Civil War". Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. XVII Part 1: 243–274. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
Swartz, William. “The Wabash Railroad”. Railroad History 133 (1975): 5-30.
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